Generation of Computer Learn Computer from Basic to Advanced Part 3

Generation of Computer Learn Computer from Basic to Advanced Part 3

Generation of Computer

Hello! Friends, I'm sure you should now be well aware of the history of computers The Previous Lecture.

I had completed the remaining part of the Last Lecture and now Start with the Generations of Computers, which tells how it has evolved since its early days, to become one Powerful and useful tools for all types of users in today's society So let's start with The Generation of Computer.

First Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953)

We have already discussed some of the early computers - ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I, and IBM 701. These were created using m / cs and thousands of their time Vacuum tube. A vacuum tube was a delicate glass device, which used the filaments as a source Control and increases electronics and electronic signals. It was the only high-speed Electronic switching devices are available in those days. These vacuum computers can perform The calculation in milliseconds and be referred to as the First Generation of Computer.

The memory was constructed using an electromagnetic relay, and all the data and instructions were fed. In the system with a punched card. Instructions were written in M/C and Assembly languages
Because high-level programming languages were introduced very later.

Characteristic of First Generation Computer

  1. They were the fastest calculating tools of their time
  2. They were heavy in their size, the big room was required for installation
  3. 1000 vacuum tubes which were excreted in large quantities of heat and burned out Repeatedly. Therefore, the rooms/areas in which these computers were located should be Properly air-conditioned
  4. Each vacuum tube consumes about half an hour of electricity. Since usually a computer is used Over ten thousand vacuum tubes were the power consumption of these computers Very high.
  5. Since filaments were used in the vacuum tube, they had a limited life. Thousand of vacuum tubes These computers were used to create a computer that had weak hardware Failures
  6. Due to low average time failures, these computers require nearly constant maintenance.
  7. Thousands of personal components were to be manually collected Work costs Therefore the commercial production of these computers was difficult and costly.
  8. Since these computers were difficult to program and use, their business was limited Use.

Second Generation of Computer (1955-1964)

The Second Generation of Computer saw many important developments at all levels of the computer system Design, with the technology used to make basic circuits for used programming languages To write scientific applications.

In this era, electronic switches were based on the discrete diode and transistor technology. Approximate 0.3 microseconds switching time The first machines to be built with it Technology In 1954 Bell Laboratories include TRADIC and MIT in Lincoln TX-0 the laboratory.

Transistors soon proved to be a better electronic switching device than a vacuum tube, due to which
Their following qualities

  1. They could handle more hard and easier than tubes because they were made Germanium semiconductor material instead of glass.
  2. They were highly reliable compared to tubes because they had no part of the filament, Which can burn out?
  3. They could switch faster than the tube.
  4. They consume about 1/10 of the electricity consumed by a tube.
  5. They were much smaller than a tube.
  6. They were less expensive to produce.
  7. They used to spread very little heat compared to the vacuum tube.

Due to the properties listed above Second Generation Computers, were more powerful Reliable, less expensive, small, and cooler to operate in comparison to the computer. Memory: Made of the magnetic core. Magnetic disks and magnetic tape were the main Secondary storage media is used in second generation computers. There were still punched cards Popular and widely used for the preparation of programs.

During this second generation, many high-level programming languages were introduced, Fortran (1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959). Important commercial The machines of this era include IBM 704, 709 and 7094. The latter introduced the I / O processor For better throughput between I / O devices and main memory.

Features of Second Generation Computer

  1. They were ten times faster than first-generation computers
  2. They were much smaller than first-generation computers, which needed small spaces.
  3. Although the wastage of heat was much lower than the first generation computers, The room/area in which the second generation computers were located should be properly Air-conditioned
  4. He consumed less electricity than first-generation computers.
  5. They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than first generation computer.
  6. They had a faster and larger primary and secondary storage than the first generation computer.
  7. They were very easy to program and use compared to first-generation computers. Therefore They had extensive business use.
  8. In these computers, thousands of individual transistors were to be manually assembled Hand in the work system So these computers were commercially produced Difficult and expensive

Generation of Computer Learn Computer from Basic to Advanced Part 3

Third Generation of Computer(1964-1975)

The Third Generation of Computer brought huge benefits to computational power. Innovation is included in this age Use of integrated circuits, or IC (many transistors built with semiconductor devices)

Physical component semiconductor memories are used instead of magnetic cores, Coming of microprogramming, as a technique to efficiently design complex processors Age of pipelining and other forms of parallel processing and The introduction of the Operating System and time-sharing

Earlier ICS was based on small-scale integration (SSI) circuits, which had approximately 10 devices
Per circuit (or `` chip ''), and developed for the use of medium-scale integrated (MSI) circuits, which
There were up to 100 devices per chip.

Multilevel printed circuits were developed and core memory was replaced with fast, solid state
Memories Computer designers began to take advantage of equality using many Functional units that overlap in CPU and  I/O operations, and pipelining (internal parallelism) Both the instruction stream and the data stream.

In 1964, Seymour Cray developed the CDC 6600, the first architecture to use Functional similarity Using 10 different functional units that could work together And 32 independent memory banks were able to obtain the calculation rate of CDC 6600 1 Million floating point operations per second (1 Mflops).

Five years later the CDC released 7600, which was also developed by Seymour Cray. With CDC 7600 Its pipeline functional units are considered as the first vector processors and were capable of
Acting on 10 Mflops. IBM 360/91 was released almost twice during the same period As fast as the CDC 660. Look ahead the planned instructions, different floating point, and integer Functional units and pipelined instruction stream.

IBM 360-195 was equivalent to CDC 7600, much of its performance was received Very fast cache memory. Solomon Computer developed by Westinghouse Corporation, And ILLIAC IV, jointly developed by Burroughs, Department of Defense and The University of Illinois was the representative of the first parallel computer. Texas instrument Advanced Scientific Computer (TI-ASC) and CDC's STAR-100 fragmentation vector was Processors that display the viability of that design and set standards for the later Vector processor

The Features of the Third Generation Computer are as follows:

  1. They were much more powerful than second-generation computers. They were Able to make approximately 1 million instruction per second.
  2. They were much smaller than second-generation computers, who needed small space
  3. Although the wastage of heat compared to the second generation computers was very low The room in which the third generation was placed was properly conditioned.
  4. They consume very little power.
  5. They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than the second generation computer. The cost of maintenance was very low.
  6. They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage compared to the other. Generation computers
  7. They were completely general-purpose  M/C.
  8. Manuel assembly of individual components was not required in their manufacturing Electronic costs, resulting in a decrease in human labor and costs at the assembly level. The commercial production of this system was easy and cheap.
  9. Timesharing OS allowed interactive use as well as using these systems A large number of users
  10. It is possible to share the OS made from on-line systems in time, as a result of which they are used System for new online applications
  11. Third-generation minicomputers made computers smaller than cheap Companies

Fourth Generation Computer(1975-1989)

The Fourth Generation of Computer systems saw the use of large-scale integration (LSI-1000)
Device per-chip) and very large integration (VLSI - 100,000 devices per chip) Creating Computing Elements On this scale the whole processor will fit on a chip, And for a simple system, the entire computer (processor, main memory and I / O controller) can fit On a chip. Gate delayed approximately 1ns per gate.

Semiconductor memories mostly replace the core memory as the main memory in the system; Till then This time, the usage of the semiconductor memory in most systems was limited to registers and caches. During this period, high-speed vector processors such as CRAY 1, CRAY X-MP and CYBER 205 dominates the high-performance computing scene. Computer with large main Memory, such as CRAY 2, started to emerge. Different types of parallel architecture were started to appear to;

However, during this period the parallel computing efforts were mostly experimental Nature and most computational science vector was done on the processor. Microcomputers More workstations were introduced and extensive usage was seen as the time-sharing mainframe option computer. It introduced a new social revolution of the personal computer revolution. the whole night, Computers have become incredibly compact. They became cheap to make, suddenly it became It is also possible for anyone to the computer.

During this generation, the magnetic core memories were replaced by semiconductor memories,
Large random access memories with access times very fast Became a hard disk Cheap, small and big in capacity In addition to magnetic tape, floppy disks became very large Is popular as a portable medium for porting programs and data from a computer system one more.

Another feature was high-speed computer networking, which enabled many Computers should be connected together. Local area to be able to communicate with each other The networks became popular. Unix operating system and C programming during this generation became popular.

Features of Forth Generation Computer

  1. The PC was smaller and cheaper than mainframe or third of Minicomputers Generation
  2. The mainframes were more powerful.
  3. No air conditioning required for PC
  4. He consumed less electricity than third-generation computers
  5. They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures, therefore The main cost was negligible
  6. They had fast and very large secondary and primary storage.
  7. Graphical User Interface (GUI) enabled new users to learn how to use it quickly computer.
  8. The network of computers is capable of sharing resources like disk, printer among many Computers and their users
  9. These systems also used the add-on hardware feature.
  10. They also make computers affordable for their personal use at home.

Fifth Generation of Computer(1989)

During this generation, VLSI Technologies became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) Storage Technologies also upgraded very fast, making large and large main memory and discs Storage is available in newly introduced systems. Fifth generation optical discs Emerged as a popular portable mass storage media. They are usually known as CDs- ROM (compact disc-read only memory) because they are mainly used for storing programs and Data, which is read-only (written / not modified)

The Characteristics of the Fifth Generation Computer are as follows:

  1. Portable PCs are very small and easy compared to fourth-generation PCs, Allows users to use the computing feature while traveling.
  2. Desktop PCs and workstations are many times more powerful than PCs Fourth generation
  3. Mainframe systems are many times more powerful than mainframe systems Fourth generation
  4. They consume very little power compared to the predecessors.
  5. They are more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than their predecessors. So the cost of maintenance is negligible
  6. They have fast and large primary and secondary storage
  7. They are completely general-purpose M / C
  8. More user-friendly
  9. These systems also use the concept of unbundled software and add-on hardware, Allows users to invest only in their hardware configuration and software Requirement and value

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