Basic Concepts of Computer

Basic Concepts of Computer

Basic Concepts of Computer

A computer is a programmable machine designed for demonstration Arithmetic and logical operations automatically and The user gives the input given by the user on a sequential basis
Desired production after processing. 

Are computer components Hardware and that is divided into two major categories Software. The hardware itself is the machine and its associated Software such as Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, etc. are software Set of programs that use hardware for display Various tasks.


Characteristics of Computers



Features of the computer that they have created Powerful and universally useful speed, accuracy, Diligence, versatility, and storage capacity. Let's discuss them In short.

Speed

Computers work at an incredible speed. A powerful computer About 3-4 million is capable of displaying simple instructions per second.

Accuracy

In addition to being fast, computers are also accurate. Errors Maybe almost always attributed to human beings Error (incorrect data, poorly designed system or faulty Instructions/programs written by programmers).

Diligence

Unlike humans, computers are highly compatible. They Not bored with human symptoms of boredom and exhaustion As a result of lack of concentration, Therefore, there are computers Better perform better than humans and Repeat Functions.

Versatility

Computers are versatile machines and are capable Do any work until it is broken. Series of logical phases Can be computer presence Seen in almost every area - Railway / Air Reserve, Bank, Hotels, weather forecasts and many more.

Storage Capacity

Today's computers can store large amounts of data. One piece Once entered information (or stored) in the computer, Can never be forgotten and can be recovered almost Instantaneously


Computer Organization


A computer system consists primarily of four roots Units; I.e. input unit, storage unit, central processing Unit and production unit. The Central Processing Unit includes Arithmetic logic unit and control unit,

A computer performs five major operations or functions Despite its size and make-up. Are they
  • It accepts data or instructions as input,
  • It stores data and instruction
  • It processes the data according to the instructions, Operations 
  • it controls all operations within a computer, and
  • It gives results as output.

Computer Functional Units:


A. Input Unit: This unit is used to enter data and Program by the user in computer system Processing.

B. Storage Unit: Storage unit is used to store data And instructions before and after the processing.

C. Output Unit: Used to store the output unit After production produced by the computer as a result
Processing.

D. Processing: Operation like Arithmetic and logical operations are called processing. The central processing unit (CPU) takes data and Instructions from the storage unit and makes all types of
Calculated based on given instructions and type Data provided. Then it is sent back to the storage unit. CPU contains the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit: all calculations and Comparison based on the instructions provided Made within ALU. This arithmetic, In addition, subtraction, multiplication, Division, and more logical operations, Less than and equal to
  • Control Unit: controlling all operations such as input, Processing and production control is done by the unit. It takes care of the step-by-step processing of all operations Inside the computer.

Computer Memory


The memory of the computer can be classified into two types; Main Memory and secondary memory

A. Primary memory can be further classified as RAM and Rom.
  • RAM or Random Access Memory is a unit computer system. This is where a computer is in place The operating system, the application program and In current use, the data is temporarily placed so that they Can be accessed by the computer processor. this is Since its content is accessible, it is called 'unstable' Only as long as the computer is running. contents of RAM is not available once it is a computer Sexually suggestive
  • ROM or read-only memory is a special kind of memory Which can be read-only and whose content is not The computer is lost even after the shutdown. This usually Producer's instructions included. Between the other Things, ROM also stores an early program called 'Bootstrap loader' to start work Operation of the computer system as soon as electricity starts On.
B. Secondary Memory

RAM is a volatile memory with limited storage capacity.Secondary/supportive storage is in addition to storage RAM. These include devices that are peripherals and are Connect and control by the computer to enable Permanent storage of programs and data. There are two types of secondary storage devices; Magnetic and Optical Magnetic devices include hard disks and optical Storage devices are CDs, DVDs, pen drives, zip drives, etc.
  • Hard Disk: Hard discs are made of rigid materials and usually occur A pile of metal disc sealed in a box Hard disk and Hard disk drive exists as an entity and is one A permanent part of the computer where data and programs are Are saved. These disks have a storage capacity 1 GB to 80 GB and more. Hard discs are rewritable.
  • Compact Disc: Compact disc (CD) is a portable disk with data storage Capacity between 650-700 MB It can hold large amount Such as music, full-motion video, and Text, etc. CDs can either be read or read the type of writing.
  • Digital Video Disc: Digital Video Disc (DVD) is similar to a CD but is large Storage capacity and heavy clarity on the basis of The disk type can store several gigabytes of data. DVD Mainly used to store music or movies and maybe Playback on your television or computer too. Are not writable again

Input / Output Device:


These tools are used to enter information and instructions For storage or processing and to distribute in a computer Data processed for the user. Input/output devices are required Users to communicate with computers In common terms, Input devices bring information into computer and Output devices bring out information on a computer system. These input/output devices are also known as external devices Since they surround the memory of the CPU and the computer system.

A) Input Device

The input device is any device that provides an input computer. There are many input devices, but two The most common are a keyboard and mouse. everyone The keys you press on and every movement on the keyboard With the mouse you send a specific input, click on Computer signals.
  • Keyboard: Keyboard is like a standard Typewriter keyboard with some extra keys. Basic To create this, the QWERTY layout of characters is kept. The system is easy to use. Additional keys are included To do some special work. They have known Function keys that differ in number from keyboard Keyboard.
  • Mouse: A device that controls the cursor speed Or pointers on the display screen A mouse is a small object You can roll with a hard and flat surface. its Name is taken from its shape, which looks a bit Mouse. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display The screen runs in the same direction.
  • Trackball: A trackball is an input device used to enter Speed data in a computer or other electronic devices It meets the same objective of a mouse, but it is designed With a moving ball at the top, which can be rolled inside Any direction
  • Point Touchpad: A TouchPad is a tool for pointing (to control) Input positioning on a computer display screen). this one Mouse option Originally included in laptop Computers, touchpads are also being used for use Desktop computer Works by a touchpad sensing The user's finger speed and downward pressure. 
  • Touch Screen: This allows the user to work/create Simply select by touching the display screen. A demonstration The touch-sensitive screen of a finger or stylus. Widely used on ATM machines, retail point-of-sale Terminal, Car Navigation System, Medical Monitor, and Industrial Control Panel.
  • Light pen: Light pen is an input device that uses one Light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display Screen.
  • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): MICR can Identify a printed character with a special ink containing Magnetic material particles. This device is special Finds the application in the banking industry. Optical Mark Recognition (OMR): Optical Mark Recognition, also called Mark Sense Reader, is a technology Where an OMR feels the presence or absence of the device An icon, such as a pencil mark. OMR has widely used Tests like Aptitude Test.
  • Bar code reader: Bar-code readers are photoelectric Scanners reading bar codes or vertical zebra strips Mark, printed on product containers. These are tools Usually used in supermarkets, bookshops, etc.
  • Scan scanner: Scanner is an input device that can read text Or print paper and translate on paper Information as a computer can use. The scanner works by digitizing an image.
B.) Output Device:

Receives information from the CPU and the output device Presents for the user is desired. has been processed The data is stored in the computer's memory The output unit, which then changes it into a form that can be understood by the user. The output is usually Produced in one of two ways - On the display device, Or on paper (hard copy).
  • Monitor: often used synonyms with "computer" Screen "or" display. "Monitor is an output device that Looks like a television screen (fig 1.8). It can use one To display cathode ray tube (CRT) information. The monitor is connected to a keyboard for manual input Displays letters and information because it is key In. It also displays program or application output. Like television, monitors are also available individually Shape.
  • Printer: Printer is used to make paper (usually Hardcopy is known as) Output. Is based on technology Used, they can be categorized as Impact or Non-Effective Printers Effects printers use typewriting printing system In which a hammer attacks the paper through a ribbon Order of production. Dot-matrix and character Printers come in this category. Non-impact printers, while not touching paper Printing. They use chemical, heat or electrical signals Dig the symbols on the paper. Inkjet, Deskjet, Laser, Thermal Printers fall under this category.
  • Plotter: Plotters are used to print graphical output Paper. This computer interprets the command and creates a line Pictures on paper using a multicolored automatic pen. This graph is able to draw, chart, map e.t.c.
  • Facsimile (FAX): Facsimile machine, a device that can do Send or receive images and text on a telephone line. Fax machines work by digitizing an image. Board sound card and speaker (s): an extension board that Enables the computer to manipulate and output sounds. Almost all CD-ROMs require sound cards Have become common on modern personalities computer. Sound cards enable the computer to output Sound to record through speakers connected to the board Sound input from a microphone connected to Manipulate the computer, and the sound stored on disk.


What is Computer Software?


A set of computer software programs that makes Hardware do a set of tasks in a special order. Hardware And the software are complimentary for each other. Both have to do Work together to generate meaningful results. computer The software is classified into two broad categories; system
Software and application software

System Software:

System software contains a set of programs that control Operation of a computer device with functions Managing memory, managing external devices, loading, There is an interface between storage, and application programs And computers MS-DOS (Microsoft's disk operating)
Systems) are examples of UNIX system software.

Application Software:

Software that can do a specific task for the user, such as Word processing, accounting, budgeting or payroll, declines Under the category of application software. word processors, Spreadsheets, database management systems are all Examples of general purpose application software.

The types of application software are:
  • Word Processing Software: its main purpose Software is to produce documents. MS-Word, Word Pads, Notepad, and some other text editors are some of the Examples of word processing software 
  • Database Software: Database is a Collection of Databases Related Data The purpose of this software is to organize and Manage data. The advantage of this software is that you can change the way data is stored and displayed. Ms. Access, DBase, FoxPro, Paradox and Some of Oracle are Examples of database software 
  • Spread Sheet Software: Spread Sheet Software Used To maintain a budget, financial statements, grade sheets And sales records The purpose of this software is Organizing number Show these users Gives permission Simple or complex calculation on the numbers entered In rows and columns. MS-Excel is an example of this spreadsheet software.
  • Presentation Software: This software is used to display Information in the form of slideshow Three main The editing of the presentation software allows editing Inclusion of text and graphics with graphics in Executes text and slides Best examples Microsoft for this type of application software power point.
  • Multimedia Software: media players and real players Examples of multimedia software are Will this software Allow the user to create audio and video. Apart The multimedia software has audio converters, Player, burner, a video encoder and decoder

Computer Language


Computer language or programming language is a coded The syntax is used to communicate by a computer programmer A computer. Establishes a flow of computer language Communication between software programs. Language Enables computer user to order The computer needs to perform data processing. These languages Can be classified into the following categories.
  1. Machine language
  2. The language of the meeting
  3. High-level language
Machine Language

Machine language or machine code is native language Is understood by the central processing unit of the computer directly Or CPU. This type of computer language is not easy to Understand, because it uses only one binary system, one element Notation with only a series of numbers Another zero, to produce the command.

Assembly Level Language

Assembly level language is a group of code that can run directly on the computer's processor. This type of language The operating system is best suited for writing and Maintaining desktop applications. With assembly level Language, the programmer is easy to define commands. It's easy to understand and use compared to a machine Language.

High-level Language

High-level languages are user-friendly languages Similar to English with the vocabulary of words and symbols. They are easy to learn and require less time to write. They are problem-oriented rather than 'machine-based'. A program written in a high-level language can be translated Many machines can run in languages and so on The computer for which a suitable translator is present.

Compiler and Interpreter

These are programs where the written instructions are executed A high-level language There are two ways to run the program has been written in a high-level language. The most common Compile the program; Another method for passing the program is Through interpreter.

A. Compiler

A compiler is a special program that processes the statements Is written in a special programming language as Converts source code and machine language into them Or "machine code" which uses the computer's processor.

The compiler translates directly to high-level language programs In the machine language program This process is called compilation.

B. Interpreter

An interpreter translates high-level instructions into one The intermediate form, which it then executes. Compiled Programs generally run faster than interpreted programs. However, the advantage of the interpreter is that it does during which there is no need to go through the compilation phase
Machine instructions are generated. This process can be
If the program is long, then it takes time.

Open Source Software:

Open source refers to a program or software in which Source code (programmer type as a programmer Writes a program in a special programming language) Available to the general public for use and/or modification Free from your original design. The open source code is usually created as a collaborative effort In which programmers improve and share the code Changes within the community

The logic for this movement is that a large group The programmer is not affiliated with proprietary rights or Financial benefits will produce a more useful and bug-free product To use for everyone.

The basics behind the Open Source Initiative is that when The programmer can read, redistribute, and modify the Source Code for a piece of software, the software is developed. open source As a reaction sprouts in the technical community Ownership software is owned by corporations.


Proprietary software is privately owned and controlled. The In Computer industry is considered proprietary contrast open. A proprietary design or technique is that which is owned By a company It also means that the company has not done this Specific specification allowing other companies
Copy the product.

Operating System


An Operating System is a software component of a computer A system which is responsible for the management of various Computer activities and computer sharing Resources It hosts many applications that run on one Handles the operation of computers and computer hardware.

Users and application programs access the services offered By the operating system, through the system call and Application programming interfaces. Chat with users Computer operating system through the command line Interfaces knew as GUFs (CLI) or graphical user interfaces.

In essence, an operating system enables the user to interact with Computer Systems Working as an Interface Between Users Or application programs and computer hardware. some Common operating systems are Linux Windows, etc.

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