History of Hacking 1960s: The Dawn of Hacking

The History of Hacking

History of Hacking




First Came Hardware

Where does one begin a history of hacking?

Can we start the construction of computers j? Do Prosper Eckert and John Mauchly? During World War 11 the pair of engineers and physicists approached the US Army with an offer of an electronic device that would rapidly calculate gunnery coordinates - a job that was then being performed by hand. 

The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was born in 1946, with the government supporting their method. A year after the war ended - the machine's designed work was now reduced to a very low level - but the dream behind its fictional successful use was alive.

Of course, the genesis of computers - computers for God's sake - cannot be so easily expressed in a clear paragraph of a patriotic stupa, the most revolutionary invention since the telephone. 

The real story goes further to Konrad Zus, whose patents were generally rejected in 1938 by the Patent Office for not being sufficiently specific to the electromechanical relay computer.

It may have been the ENIAC that gave birth to the next generation of computers, but ENIAC was a work machine. Zeus's contraceptive had a feeling of modernity: a machine that would do whatever ... but did it start hacking? certainly not.

The longing to do ... anything has been in the human psyche for centuries. Perhaps we should begin with Alexander Graham Bell's historical "accident" on March 10, 1876, with the revolutionary creation of the telephone.

The telephone was not an immediate bestseller. After all, you simply cannot buy one and keep it in your home and use it. Lines had to be laid.

The network was to be built from house to house, business to business and finally to the neighboring state. Nearly thirty years of development of the phone spread throughout the country.

YIPL and TAP

So there was the telephone, a computer, and there was an indomitable curiosity in the collective human subconscious.

It waged a second war to loosen that curious fantasy in the world, and on May 1971, the Youth International Party Line became the newspaper of the mocking, ineffectual riffer of New York City's Greenwich Village.

Abby Hoffman and a phone freak that went on the handle by Al Bell used YIPL to provide information on how to crack the phone network.

This was the first example of subversive information seeking to find a wider audience. Subscriptions to the journal spread the word of this hand underground from Bilicar Street to people from all walks of life.

Today this distribution will be done by computer, and indeed, a great deal of hacker /more freak/ anarchist content unfolds worldwide on invisible waves of cyberspace. A few years after the founding of YIPL, it became TAP - the technical assistance program - when the targets of the believers collided with the more politically-minded members of the YIPL.

TAP was more technical than biased and more suited to hackers and their families.

Computer Crime

Don B., a frequent writer on computer crime. The first recorded computer abuse, according to Parker, occurred in 1958. The first federally prosecuted crime specifically identified as a computer involved the alteration of bank records by a computer in Minneapolis in 1966. Computers were not as widespread then, as they are now, and the stakes were not so high.

It is one thing to control and track money via computer; It is quite other to control in this way.

In 1970, many criminology researchers were saying that the problem of computer crime was simply the result of new technology and not a subject worth considering. 

In the mid-1970s, as computer crime became increasingly more expensive, the feeling was that machines themselves were a part of the environment, and so they would naturally become a component of crime in some instances.

It does not matter if a thief commits his robbery in a pillow or plastic bag - why should the victim of the crime determine the way criminals think about the case? 

It was an unfortunate way for people accused of stopping computer crimes, because when research came to a standstill, criminals, crackers and hackers were actively racking their brains to make them more simple to work on those computers. To come up with ways they were not capable of. to do.

Criminals could not then realize that computers were, in fact, an integral part of the crime and that the existence of these machines - and the systems built around them - was thinking about whole new areas of crime and a crime that Never before had it been detected. 

However, MPs and promoters finally sit down and take notice. Two important developments took place in 1976.

The FBI established a 4-week training course for its agents in the investigation of computer crime (and began a second course for other agencies in 1978).

Also in 1976, Senator Abraham Ribikoff and his US Senate Governmental Affairs Committee felt that something big was happening, and it was important for the government to execute it. 

The committee produced two research reports and Ribikoff introduced the first Federal System Protection Act Bill on June 1977.

These reports eventually became the Com-puter Fraud and Abuse Act 1986. Florida, Mixi-Gan, Colorado, Rhode Island, and Arizona were some of the first states to have computer crime laws developed on the basis of Ribikoff bills. 1986 act.

A year earlier, a major breakthrough was announced at the Securicum conference in Cannes by a group of Swedish scientists who invented a method of eavesdropping silently on computer screens from afar. But let's save this story for later. Much later.

Tom Edison and Cheshire Catalyst, two phone fries who had been interested in the nether side of technology for ages, took over TAP in the late '70s.

The magazine expired before its time in 1983 when Torn Edison's New Jersey condominium burned to the ground, a professional burglary and an amateur arson victim. Burgers obtained all of Tom's computer equipment from which TAP was born.

The arson, perhaps an attempt to cover up the theft, did not succeed. It was a sloppy fire, envisaged by a Tom and Cheshire engineer engineered by some irate phone company official.

A few months later, the original TAP printed its final issue. The following year, in 1984, hacker Eric Corley (aka Emmanuel Goldstein) filled the void with a new publication: 269 magazines. 

Ironically, Goldstein is more radical than a hacker, and the magazine is less technical and more political (like the original YIPL).

Networks were being built everywhere, allowing hackers to not only hack more sites but also to exchange information faster and more easily.

Does mo need published journals? In May 1981, the City University of New York and Yale University joined together as the first BITNET (because it's time network) link.

There are now networks of networks connecting the world (such as the Internet), putting all hackers and common people in direct communication with each other.

WarGames and Phrack

A hacker named Bill Landreth was indicted for computer fraud in 1983, and in 1984 was convicted of entering such computer systems as GTE Tele-Mail's electronic mail network, and correspondence within NASA and the Department of Defense Read.

Naughty boy! His name will come again. 1983 also saw the release of Wargames and all hell broke loose. Certainly, hackers had considerable activism before the film came out, but before wargames, they were less in number and less visible to hackers.

The thrilling story of David Lightman (played by Matthew Broderick), a school-age baby boy who almost started World War 111, became the basis of many modems for Christmas that year.

Suddenly there was a proliferation of people on the hacking scene who were not really hackers in expertise or spirit. Bulletin board systems flourished, and a large number of boards cater to hackers, freaks, ware dudes (software pirates), anarchists, and all manner of restless youth.

The online publication Freak was founded on November 17, 1985, at Metal Shop Private BBS in St. Louis, Missouri, run by Taran King and Night Lightning.

The term "online" referred to the fact that the magazine was distributed not through the newsstands and mails of the electronic bulletin board system, but on the news rack, where archives of files are available for pick up.

Later, when the magazine's founders stopped going to college and gained Internet access, the publication was distributed through indicators that could automatically e-mail hundreds of copies of the publication worldwide. The frac is still disliked as such.

As the name implies, Phrack deals with PHReaking and hACKing but is also happy to present articles of any kind of mischief. The annual conference, called Summercons, hosted by Frac, is now held in St. Louis.

Shadow Hawk

Bill Landreth, who was arrested in 1983, was put out on parole and there are reports of his mysterious disappearance.

He left a note saying that he would "commit suicide sometime around my 22nd birthday ..." There was a lot of discussion about all this. Was it a publicity stunt, or for real? Eventually, Landreth reappeared in July 1987 in Seattle, Washington, and was hastily sent back to prison for probation.

Months before D-Day's anniversary - a cracker named Shadow Hawk (also identified by some press reports as Shadow Hawk 1) was discovered by an AT&T security agent for degrading on Texas BBS with a frac class. It is called -2600. How he hacked AT & T's computer system.

Shadow Hawk (actually Herbert Zinn of Chicago) was an 18-year-old high school drop-out at the time of his arrest.

He could manage the FBI, Secret Service, Defense Criminal Investigative Service, and Chicago US Attorney not only for the aforementioned hacks but also for attacking computers related to NATO and the US Airforce and stealing more than $ 1 million of software. Shadow Hawk's case is significant because in 1989 he became the first person to go to trial under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986.

Shadow Hawk is just one example of how this hobby has gotten people into trouble with the law.

At this time a lot of hackers were being landed by almost all hackers: security officers for telephone companies and other organizations, FBI, local police and concerned citizens.

This was the time when investigators got smart. Not that they suddenly knew more about computers and hacking, but now they understood that to catch a lion, one must step into their den.

These police agents started logging on to hackers BBS and generally deposited heavy dossiers on people using those boards.

Several warnings were issued, and several arrests were made. In August 1986, Cliff Stoll first discovered why there were 7,50 imbalances in computer accounts at California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Stole's efforts led to the discovery of a group of German hackers who had broken into computer systems. In October 1989, a book about the adventures of the stole called The Cuckoo Egg was published and became an instant bestseller.

For the next few years, organized and independent hacker activities continued with little public interest.

In early 1988, they were threatened by the West Berlin Chaos Computer Club to trigger a Trojan horse, which they implanted into NASA's Space Physics Analysis Network, causing chaos to their name.

The threats were never exposed, but minor havoc drained anyway, as many computers were temporarily pulled from the net, until the threat was analyzed.

The end of 1988 - 2 November, accurately indicated the beginning of a new surge in anti-hacker sentiment.

This was when Robert Morris Jr.'s com- operator Worm began his race via the Internet.

In order to uncover an undefined bug in the Sendmail program and use its own internal arsenal, the worm would infiltrate a system and quickly devour the system's processing capabilities and memory space, as it moved from machine to machine, net to net. Is around.

Electronic Frontier Foundation

The birth of the Electronic Frontier Foundation was announced on July 10, 1990.

The EFF is a group dedicated to protecting our constitutional rights; It was created by the Secret Service in response to a series of rude and rude eruptions in the witch hunt known as Operation Sundevil.

As of May 1989, this "hacker hunt" led 150 Secret Service agents to serve 28 search warrants in 14 cities.

They seized 23,000 disks and 42 computers, often for improper reasons.

The e-mail was left undone. Public posting never made it to the screen of the computer community.

Several innocent buyers (as well as criminals) were arrested. John Perry Barlow (writer, retired cattle rancher, and a songwriter for the Grateful Dead), and computer guru Mitch Kapor, known for write-in Lotus 1-2-3, were angered by these events (and their own By- with the FBI on the stolen source code being distributed by the Neuprometheus League).

He also worked closely with attorney Harvey Silvergate, who was known to take over for offbeat reasons.

Some yellow journalism by the Washington Post provided the necessary publicity to attract Steve Wozniak (co-founder of Apple) and John Gilmore (of Sun Microsystems), who offered monetary support for the venture.

It was at this point that the Steve Jackson incident made headlines. The publisher of an Austin, Texas, role-playing game, Jackson's business was raided by the Secret Service because one of his games, called GURPS Cyberpunk, had to do with a kind of futuristic computer hacking.

The Secret Service called Jackson's game "a handbook for computer crime." It was fascinating, due to the arrest of Milton Bradley, as he sells chess, which teaches children to go to war.

Jackson's office equipment was confiscated, he was forced to lay off half his employees, and he went into insolvency. "Eventually," Jackson later wrote, "We got most of our property back (although some of it was damaged or destroyed).

The Secret Service admitted that we would never be the target of their investigation. "Jackson sued the US government (the Secret Service, his two agents, and a Belcore officer named in the suit) on charges that the Secret Service had violated his right to make a speech during a raid in office.

Justice was done and SS was convicted. Jackson has since played a role regarding the incident.

In the summer of 1990, they were filled with all kinds of surprises. There are famous stories, notorious, and that barely make a back page.

In mid-August, thirteen New York young adults and minors were charged with computer tampering, computer atrocities, and felony charges related to the theft of services.

They were broken into Pentagon computers, among others,
And a full weight of the law was found on their tail. The $ 50,000 worth of computing equipment was seized, which is said to have been used by hackers to break-in.

Dozens of such stories were reported, then quickly faded. Other narratives and other hackers sparked more interest, such as Acid Frack and Fiber Optic, which became "celebrity hackers", speaking on behalf of the hacker community for various media.

In February 1991, Fiber Optic was finally arrested and sentenced to thirty-five hours of community service. Craig M. Nidorf's story made headlines.

We have already mentioned Needroff (Night Lightning) as one of the co-founders of Frac.

Nee-Dorf published an (edited) internal paper in Freck and was quickly charged with interstate transportation of stolen property to a possible sentence of 60 years in prison and a fine of $ 122,000.

What was particularly absurd was that the document was readily and legally available (although BellSouth declared it to be full of company secrets), and it talked about the BellSouth bureaucracy as it per-lines the 911 lines.

Sixty Years in Jail for Copyright Infringement? The EFF helped Nidorf through these troubled times (as he helped Steve Jackson, and came to the aid of many hackers and crackers who would be treated unfairly or with ignorance by the law).

The US dropped its case against Nidorf in late July 1990. There are dozens or hundreds of stories about hackers every year and have been for quite some time. Some forget quickly; Others provoked controversy.

Such was the case on November 6, 1992, when a group of hackers peacefully summoned to the Food Court of the Pentagon City Mall outside Washington, DC, were surrounded by mall security, secret service, and FBI agents.

Hacking has had a long past and will continue to enjoy a prosperous and successful future because of people like us, who enjoy seeing what secrets are in the world waiting to be revealed.



Hi'i'm Rahim Ansari ,from India, I Love to Blogging, Desing Website, Web Developing and Desiging I Like to Learn and share Technical Hacking/Security tips with you,I Love my Friends.

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